Royal Families in the world

AFRICA



REIGNING ROYAL FAMILIES


Lesotho








King Letsie III


Royal House of Moshesh



Morocco









King Mohammed VI





He is the head of the Alaouite or Alawite dynasty

Former dynasties in Morocco:
The establishment of the Moroccan state in 789.
Since 1957 the title King is used.

Idrisid dynasty (788-974)
This dynasty was named after its founder: Idriss I.
He was the great grandchild of Hasan ibn Ali.

Almoravid dynasty (1040 - 1147)
The Almoravid capital was Marrakesh a city they founded
in 1062.

Almohad dynasty (1121 - 1279)





This was a Moroccan Berber movement founded in the 12th century.


Marinid dynasty (1244-1465))




In 1244, the Marinids overthrew the Almohad dynasty, which controlled
Morocco then. 

Idrisid interlude (1465-1471)

Wattasid dynasty (1472 - 1554)
These nation were Zenata Berber descendants. The Marinids recruited 
many viziers from the Wattasids. 

Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yaha was the first Wattasid
sultan of Morocco and King of Fez. 

Saadi dynasty (1549 - 1659)
Their reign over Morocco started with Mohammed ash-Sheikh as their
first Sultan. 

He conquered Marrakech in 1524. He also fought against the Portuguese
and Wattasids and even against the Ottomans. 

Dila'i interlude (1659 - 1663)

Alaouite dynasty (1666 - till today)
The Alaouite dynasty is the current Moroccan Royal Family. 

Swaziland










King Mswati III


House of Dlamini 





NON-REIGNING ROYAL FAMILIES IN AFRICA



Egypt & Sudan







Muhammed Ali dynasty (1805 - 1952)
Muhammed Ali was an Albanian commander of the Ottoman Army.
He seized power when by the French withdrawal. In 1805 he forced 
the Ottoman Sultan: Mahmud II to recognize him as walid or governor
of Egypt. Muhammed Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power. 

About Muhammed Ali 's great- great grandson:
 Abbas II of Egypt, check this link






















Ikhshidid dynasty (935 - 969)
They ruled over Egypt

Ayyubid dynasty (1171 - 1260)
was founded by Saladin and they ruled over a lot of regions in the
Middle East. 



















picture of Saladin 

Bahri dynasty (1250-1382)
This was a Mamluk dynasty that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk
Sultanate. They followed the Ayyubid dynasty. 

Burji dynasty (1382 - 1517)
They ruled over Egypt. It was a turbulent time with short-living
Sultans.

Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171)
was a caliphate. The dynasty ruled over the Mediterranean coast
of Africa. They made Egypt the center of the caliphate. 


Libya

Karamanli dynasty (1711 - 1835)
This dynasty was founded by Ahmed Karamanli. 

Hafsid dynasty (1229 -1574)
ruled over western Libya, Tunisia and Algeria

Rustamid dynasty (767 - 909)
Their realm extended till central Algeria, Libya, Morocco
and Mauritania. 

Tunisia





















Royal coat of Arms of Tunisia


Husainid Dynasty (1705-1957)
Originally they were of Cretan Turkish origin. Their first ruler
was: al-Husayin I Ibn Ali. He came to power in 1705 replacing 
the Muradid Dynasty. 

On 25 July 1957, the Tunisian Republic was declared and the
ruling royal family was deposed. 

Current head of the dynasty is Prince Muhammad al-Habib Bey.



Pre-colonial Royal Kingdoms in Congo



Kingdom of Kongo (1390 - 1914)




The Kongo was a state located primarily in the southwest portion of the
modern Congo, and also occupying portions of modern Angola and
Cabinda.

At its greatest, the Kingdom of Kongo reached from the Atlantic Ocean
in the west to the Kwango River in the east and from the Point Noire in 
the north to the Loje River in the south.

This kingdom was led by a king known as 'Manikongo'. He exercised his
authority over the 6 provinces that formed the Kongo kingdom and the
'Bakongo', the Kongo peoples.

The king was elected by a group of governors, who were usually the heads
of important families. The villages were often governed by lesser relatives
of the King who were responsible to him. The capital of the Kongo Kingdom
was Mbanza-Kongo, this city is now known by the same name as the capital
of an Angolan province.  

Luba Kingdom (1585 - 1889)
The Luba Kingdom was founded by King Kongolo around 1585. 

Lunda Kingdom (1665 - 1887)
Mwaant Yav also called Mwata Yamvo formed the central 
Lunda Kingdom and he became its ruler from 1660 till 1665. 
His title and name was passed to his descendants and successors 
as rulers of the kingdom. 

The Lunda kings became powerful and they married with descendants of 
the Luba kings. 

Their empire was extended through southwest Katanga into Angola
and north western Zambia. 

Yeke Kingdom (1856 - 1891)
The Yeke Kingdom existed from about 1856 till 1891 under one King:
Msiri. 

When King Leopold II of Belgium and the British imperialist Cecil
Rhodes heard that the Yeke Kingdom controlled east-west trade,
they sent competing expeditions to try to obtain a 'treaty' for the 
Kingdom. 

Kuba Kingdom or Kuba Federation
The Kuba federation was a political entity that began to develop out
of a number of decentralized ethnically Bantu states (Luba, Leele and 
Wongo ethnic Groups).

The capital was Nsheng, now Mushenge. 


Rwanda







The Kingdom of Rwanda was one of the oldest and most centralized
Kingdoms in the history of Central-East Africa.

The last monarch was Kigeli V Ndahindurwa. He was born on
June 29th. 1936 and died on October 16th. 2016. He reigned from
July 28th. 1959 till January 28th. 1961.

Horn of Africa

Sultanate of Mogadishu (10th - 16th century)













Sultanate of Showa (1180-1279)

Sultanate of Ifat (13th century)

Walashma Dynasty (13th - 16th century)

Adal Sultanate (1415-1555)

Ajuran Sultanate (13th - 17th century)

Mudaito Dynasty 

Sultanate of Harar (1526 - 1577)

Imamate of Aussa (1577 - 1672)

Emirate of Harar (1647 - 1887)

Sultanate of Geledi (18th - 19th century)

Majeerteen Sultanate (mid 18th - early 20th. century)

Kingdom of Gomma (early 19th. century till 1886)

Kingdom of Jimma (1830 - 1932)

Kingdom of Gumma (1840 - 1902)

Sultanate of Hobyo (19th century - 1925)
This was a Somali Kingdom, which ruled of parts of Ethiopia 
and central Somalia.


Dervish State (1897 - 1920)
Was a Somali Muslim Kingdom established by Mohammed Abdullah
Hassan.

They built fortresses over the Horn of Africa. 

African Great Lakes




Sennar Sultanate (1523 - 1821)
also known as the Funj Monarchy or the Funj Kingdom. This was
located in the north of Sudan. Its capital was Sennar.

Wituland (1858 - 1923)
Wituland was a territory in East Africa, nowadays in Kenya. 


Central and West Africa

Za Dynasty in Gao (11th. century - 1275)

Sayfawa dynasty (1075 - 1846)

Mali empire (1230 - 1600)

Keita Dynasty (1235 - 1670)

Songhai Empire (1340 - 1591)

Bornu Empire (1396 - 1893)

Kingdom of Baguirmi (1522 - 1897)

Dendi Kingdom (1591 - 1901)

Sultanate of Damagaram (1731-1851)

Sokoto Caliphate (1804 - 1903)

Toucouleur Empire (1836 - 1890)

Massina Empire

El Hajj Oumar Tall (1794 - 1864)


East Africa





















Madagascar


Merina Kingdom (1540 - 1897)

Zanzibar
















The Sultans of Zanzibar were a cadet branch of the al-Said dynasty
of Oman. 




FORMER 
AMERICAN MONARCHIES


Araucania and Patagonia


The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia was founded on
17 November 1860 and lasted till 5 January 1862.
It was founded by a French lawyer and adventurer:
Orélie-Antoine de Tounens. 

The 'Kingdom' comprised the present day Argentine and 
the part of Patagonia and a small segment of Chile. 


In 1862, Orélie-Antoine de Tounens was captured and
imprisoned in an insane asylum in Chile. 

















Brazil

Kingdom of Brazil (1815-1822)

The Kingdom of Brazil was founded by Prince Regent John of Portugal
in name of his mother, Queen Maria I of Portugal on 16 December 1815.

On 12 December 1822, Prince Pedro (son of John of Portugal) proclaimed
the independence of Brazil. He founded the Empire of Brazil. 


Empire of Brazil (1822-1889)












Haiti





















The Northern Kingdom of Haiti was established by Henri Christophe
on 28 March 1811. He proclaimed himself: King Henry I.  He committed
suicide on 8 October 1920. 

10 Days later his son and heir, Prince Royal of Haiti was assassinated by
the revolutionaries.


Hawaii

The Kingdom of Hawaii (1795 - 1883)












flag of Hawaii used between 1816 - 1845


House of Kamehameha

House of Kalakaua

Mexico

In 1860 Mexico was occupied by France. They established the
second Mexican Empire under the rule of Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian 
of Austria. He reigned as Maximilian I of Mexico. He was executed
on 19 June 1867.  


ASIA



Afghanistan

















The Barakzai dynasty ruled over Afghanistan for many years.
Their dynasty was founded in 1826.
Their reign ended in 1973. 


Armenia

Azerbaijan

Bangladesh



Bhutan
















King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck
Queen Consort Jetsun Pema

Brunei













Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah


Cambodia

The King of Cambodia has a limited power and it is an elected monarch.




China
















Xia dynasty (2070 BC - 1600 BC)

Shang dynasty (1600 BC - 1046 BC)

Chou (Zhou) dynasty (1046 BC - 256 BC)

Qin dynasty (221 BC - 206BC)

Han dynasty (206BC - 220 AD)

Six dynasties (220 or 222 till 589)

Sui dynasty (581 - 618)

Tang dynasty (618 - 907)

Five dynasties (10th century)

Song dynasty (960 - 1279)

Yuan dynasty (1271 - 1368)

Ming dynasty (1368 - 1644)

Qing dynasty (1644 1912)
About the Emperor Xianfeng who reigned between 1850 and
1861, check this link


















India

Jodhpur State (1250 - 1949)



Sardar Singh - Maharaja of Jodhpur around 1900
Source picture: Wikipedia

Wadiyar Dynasty

Was an Indian Hindu dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore
from 1399 till 1761 and from 1799 till 1947. After its independence
from British Rule, their state was incorporated in the 
Dominion of India.




Source picture: Wikipedia


Gaekwad Dynasty

was a Hindu Maratha clan who ruled in Western India from

1721 till 1947.

Bahmani Sultanate (1347 - 1527)

Jaunpur Sultanate (1394 - 1479)

Bidar Sultanate (1492- 1619)

Berar Sultanate (1490 - 1572)

Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490 - 1636)

Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518- 1687)

Adil Shahi dynasty (1490 - 1686)

Najm-i- Sani dynasty

Nawab of Rampur (1719-1949)

Nawabs of Oudh (1722 - 1858)

Nawabs of Bengal (1757 - 1880)

Talpur dynasty (1786 - 1843)

Hunza (princely state)

Nagar (princely state)

Indonesia


Japan

















Emperor Akihito




Kazakhstan

was a part of the Russian Empire and later of the Soviet Union.
from 1991 the country became independent. 

Kyrgyzstan

became an independent state in 1991. 


Lao: Royal Family (1904 - 1975)


Kingdom of Laos 

Malaysia



Malaysia has a federal constitutional elective monarchy.
Since 2016 the King is: Muhammad V of Kelantan.

9 States of Malaysia are headed by Malay rulers.

7 are hereditary rulers:

Kedah

Kelantan

Johor

Malaysian Princess wed Dutchman, check this link

Perlis

Pahang

Selangor

Terengganu


1 has a rotation system

Perak

1 has an elective system

Negeri Sembilan


Maldives

On 15 November 1967 a vote was taken in parliament to decide wether
the Maldives should continue as a constitutional monarch or become a
republic. 40 of the 44 members of parliament voted for a republic. 

On 15 March 1968, a referendum was held. Around 93 % voted for a 
republic. The republic was declared on 11 November 1968, thus ending
the 853-year old monarchy. 

Mongolia

Khamag Mongol (1120's - 1206)

Mongol Empire (1206 - 1368)

Northern Yuan Dynasty (1368 - 1635)

Myanmar


Nepal


The monarchy in Nepal was founded in 1768 and was abolished
in 2008

On 1 June 2001, Crown Prince Dipendra murdered his father,
his mother and several other members of the Royal Family of
Nepal. Afterwards he shot himself. Dipendra was proclaimed 
King, while he was in coma. He died on 4 June 2001. His uncle
Prince Gyanendra became King till 2008. 

More about Tribhuwan Bir Bikram Shah, King of Nepal,
check this link


Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Nepal 
Source picture: Wikipedia

Korean Empire (1897 - 1910)
The House of Yi, also called the Yi dynasty ruled over the Korean Empire.
The House of Yi was founded in 1392 by Taejo of Joseon. 

Pakistan



Philippines

Singapore

Sri Lanka

Tajikistan

Thailand
















The ruling royal house of Thailand is the Chakri dynasty.
The head is King Vajiralongkorn. 




picture from 2003


Important Royal News of 2016

On October 13th. 2016 , the Royal Palace has announced that 
King Bhumibol has died.

He was the world's longest serving head of state and the longest
reigning monarch in Thai history. 


on the picture with president Obama


Turkmenistan


Uzbekistan


Vietnam: Nguyen dynasty














Former Flag used from 17/4/1945 till 30/8/1945


This dynasty reigned for 143 years in Vietnam. It began in 1802 and
it ended in 1945.


EUROPE



REIGNING  ROYAL  FAMILIES


Belgium

File:Flag of Belgium.svg



The Netherlands

File:Flag of the Netherlands.svg

https://www.koninklijkhuis.nl/

You'll find more about the Royal History of the Netherlands at this page 
on my blog:
https://allaboutroyalfamilies.blogspot.com/p/the-netherlands.html

Luxembourg

File:Flag of Luxembourg.svg

https://www.monarchie.lu/fr/index.html

National Anthem: 'Ons Heemecht'
Royal Anthem: 'De Wilhelmus' 

Monaco

File:Flag of Monaco.svg

Spain

File:Flag of Spain.svg


National Anthem of Spain: 'La Marcha Real',


Liechtenstein

File:Flag of Liechtenstein.svg

https://www.fuerstenhaus.li/en/

Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland and Austria. The capital is Vaduz.
Current ruler is Prince Hans-Adam II.

Regent is: Hereditary Prince Alois


Sweden

File:Flag of Sweden.svg

Denmark

File:Flag of Denmark.svg


National Anthem of Denmark 'Der Er Et Yndigt Land'



Norway

File:Flag of Norway.svg




National Anthem of Norway 'Ja Vi Elsker Dette Landet'



United Kingdom

File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg



NON-REIGNING  ROYAL  FAMILIES

Albania

File:Flag of Albania.svg

House of Zogu

News from the Albanian Royal Court, check its official website
on this link


Austria (See House of Habsburg)


File:Flag of Austria.svg




Bohemia
















Bulgaria

File:Flag of Bulgaria.svg




Cyprus

The Kingdom of Cyprus was a crusader Kingdom between

1192 and 1489. It was ruled by the French house of
Lusignan.


France


File:Flag of France.svg




You'll find more information about the Royal History of France 
on this page of my blog:

Germany


File:Flag of Germany.svg


You'll find more information about the Royal Families in Germany
on this page of my blog:



Georgia

File:Flag of Georgia.svg



Greece


File:Flag of Greece.svg



Stamps of the Royal Family of Greece














Iceland
















Flag of the Kingdom of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. 


The Kingdom of Iceland was between 1918 and 1944. This
was a personal union with Denmark. 

Italy


File:Flag of Italy.svg




Montenegro













Royal family of Montenegro around 1916



Portugal


File:Flag of Portugal.svg



Romania

File:Flag of Romania.svg



Did you know that the former Romanian Royal Family had a lot 
of links to other European Families?


Russia

File:Flag of Russia.svg


Russia has an important history too with links to all European Royal Families.
You'll find more about Russia on the pages:

https://allaboutroyalfamilies.blogspot.com/p/russia-house-of-romanov-1600-1762.html
https://allaboutroyalfamilies.blogspot.com/p/russia-house-of-romanov-1762-till-1917.html
https://allaboutroyalfamilies.blogspot.com/p/russia-house-of-romanov-1917-now.html


Serbia


File:Flag of Serbia.svg



Vojislavljevic dynasty
This dynasty ruled in the 11th. century over Serbia.

Vukanovic dynasty
This dynasty ruled from the 11th. century till mid 13th. century
over Serbia. 

Nemanjic dynasty
This dynasty ruled from 1166 till 1371 over Serbia. 

Obrenovic dynasty
This dynasty ruled from 1815 till 1842 and again from 1858 till 1903
over Serbia. They came to power by an uprising against the Ottoman
Empire in 1815. 

Kingdom of Thessalonica

was a short living crusader Kingdom, between 1204 and 1224.



Yugoslavia










MIDDLE EAST



REIGNING ROYAL FAMILIES


Abu Dhabi: House of Al Nahyan










Sheikh: Khalifa bin Zayed-Al Nahyan

Crown Prince: Mohammed bin Zayed


Ajman: House of Al Nuaimi














Sheikh: Humaid bin Rashid Al Nuaimi

Bahrain: House of Khalifa












King: Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Crown Prince: Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

Former dynasties in Bahrain:

Qarmatians (900 1073)

Usfurids (1253 - 1320)

Jarwanid dynasty (1305 - 1487)


Dubai: House of Al Maktoum















Emir: Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum


Fujairah: House of Al Sharqi










Emir: Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi


Jordan: House of Hashim









King: Abdullah II of Jordan 

















Full name: Abdullah bin Hussein bin Talal bin Abdullah bin Hussein bin Ali 

Noble family: 
House of Hashim also known as the House of the Hashemites

More about the former King of Jordan: King Hussein, check
this link


Kuwait: House of Al-Sabah










Emir: Sabah Ahmad Al-Ahmad Al-Jabar Al-Sabah

Oman: House of Al Said












Sultan: Qaboos bin Said Al Said


Qatar: House of Thani










Emir: Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani

Qatar: Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani passes away.





Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani with his wife 
Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al Missned
and the Obamas a picture from 23 September 2009
Source: Wikipedia 


Saudi Arabia: House of Saud












King: Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud


King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud with 
president Donald J. Trump of the United States of America
Source picture: Wikipedia

On 21 June 2017 King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud issued a decree making
his son Mohammed bin Salman heir to the throne. 

To know more, check the article on Reuters on this link



John Kerry met Prince Mohammed bin Salman
in 2015 - Source picture: Wikipedia

Sharjah & Ras al-Khaimah: House of Al Qasimi











Sultan: bin Muhammed Al Qasimi




Umm al-Quwain: House of Al Mu'alla















Emir: Saud bin Rachid Al Mu'alla



NON-REIGNING  ROYAL  FAMILIES



Anatolia


Danishmends Dynasty (1071-1178)
This was a Turkish dynasty that ruled in north-central and eastern
Anatolia. 

This dynasty was founded by Danishmend Gazi. From 1134, the 
leaders held the title Melik (King). 


Mengujekids Dynasty (1071 -1277)
The founder was Mengujek Ghazi. He was probably one of the 
commanders sent by the Great Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan to
occupy parts of Anatolia after the victory at Manzikert over
the Byzantine Empire. 


Saltukids Dynasty (1072 - 1202)
The Saltukids or Saltuqids were a dynasty of the Anatolian
beyliks founded after the Battle of Manzikert (1071).

The beylik was founded by Emir Saltuk, one of the Turkmen
commanders of the Great Seljuk Alp Arslan. 
The beylik fought regularly against the Georgian Kingdom
for hegemony of Kars region. 


Artqids Dynasty (1101-1409)
This Turkish dynasty, that ruled in Eastern Anatolia, Northern
Syria and Northern Iraq also was called Artukid. 
Its founder was Zaheer-ul-Daulah Artuk Bey.

Sultanate of Rûm (1077-1307)

Khwarezmian Empire (1077-1231)

Shah-Armens (1100-1207)

Chobanids (1227 - 1309)

Karamandis (1250 - 1487)

Pervâneoglu (1261 - 1322)

Mentese 1261 - 1424)

Seljuq dynasty

Giray dynasty

Timurid dynasty

Aq Qoyunlu

Ghurids (879 - 1215)

Ghaznavid Empire (977 - 1186)

Tulunids (868 - 905)
They also ruled over Egypt during the same period. 

Ahis (1380-1362)

Hamidis (1280 - 1374)

Ladik (1300-1368)

Isfendiyarids (1300 - 1461)

Teke (1301 - 1423)

Sarukhanids (1302 - 1410)

Karasids (1303 - 1360)

Aydinids (1307 - 1425)

Ramadanids (1352 - 1516)



Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1923)


Iran & Caucasus



















coat of arms of Iran (1925 - 1979)


Justanids (791-974)

Shirvanshah (799 - 1579)

Samandid dynasty (819 - 999)

Tahirid dynasty (821 -873)

Saffarid dynasty (861 - 1003)

Alavids (864 - 929)

Dulafid dynasty (early 9th. century)

Sajids (889 - 929)

Faringhunid (late 9th - early 11th centuries)

Ma'danids (late 9th. - 11th. centuries)

Ormus (10th. - 17 centuries)

Aishanids (912 - 961)

Ziyarid (928-1043)

Buyid dynasty (934 - 1062)

Sallarid (942 - 979)

Shaddadid (951 - 1199)

Rawadid (955 - 1071)

Hasanwayhid (959 - 1015)

Annazid (990 - 1116)

Hadhabani (11th century)

Seljuq dynasty (11th - 14th. centuries)

Kakuyids (1008 - 1051)

Nizari Ismaili state (1090 - 1256)

Hazaraspids (1148 - 1424)

Khorshidi dynasty (1155-1597)

Mihrabanids (1236-1537)

Ilkhanate (1256 - 1335)

Muzaffarids (1335 - 1393)

Sarbadars (1332-1386)

Injuids (1335 - 1357)

Marashiyan (1359 - 1582)

Kara Koyunlu (1375 - 1468)

Musha'sha'iyyah (1436 - 1729)

Safavid dynasty (1501 - 1736)

Savakhvakho Dynasty (1563 - 1844)

Shaki Khanate (1743 - 1819)

Maku Khanate (1747 - 1922)

Shirvan Khanate (1748 - 1820)

Baku Khanate (1753 - 1806)

Erivan Khanate (1753 - 1796)

Afsharid dynasty (1736 - 1796)

Derbent Khanate (1747 - 1828)

Ganja Khanate (1747 - 1804)

Talysh Khanate (1747 - 1813)

Nakhichevan Khanate (1747-1813)

Karabakh Khanate (1747 - 1822)

Qajar dynasty (1785 - 1925)

Pahlavi dynasty (1925 - 1979)


Syria & Iraq


Hamdanid dynasty (890-1004)

Bani Assad (961 - 1163)

Umayyad Caliphate (661 -750)

Abbasid Caliphate (750 - 1258)

Artuqids (11-12th century)

Burid dynasty (1104 - 1154)

Zengid dynasty (1127 - 1250)

Ayyubid dynasty (1171 - 1341)
They also ruled over Egypt during the same period. 

Baban (1649 - 1850)

Hashemite Dynasty of Iraq (1921 -1958)




Yemen


Rassids (893 - 1970)

Sulayhid Dynasty (1047-1138)

Ayyubid conquest (1171 - 1260)

Rasulid Dynasty (1229 - 1454)

Tahiride Dynasty (1454 - 1517)

Ottoman rule till 1918

Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen  (1926 - 1970)

Two States of Yemen

Unification

Kingdom of Jerusalem

Was established by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099.
More about Godfrey of Bouillon on this link




















It lasted till 1291.




OCEANIA


Tonga

The first monarch was King George Tupou I. 



Source pictures: Wikipedia (except when the caption is added)