Russia: House of Romanov 1600 -1762

The first king of Belgium, Leopold I, was a general in the army of 
Tsar Alexander I. His sister Juliane of Saxe-Coburg Saalfeld married 
Grand Duke Constantine. So I wanted to know more about this family. 
I really became fascinated about the Romanovs.

During ages, the Romanovs have reigned over Mother Russia. 
They ruled a huge country (almost one sixth  of the Earth's surface).

There were a lot of important tsars and even tsarinas. 
The fact that women could reign, surprised me.

The Russian Court was one of the leading through Europe.

House of Romanov

Coat of Arms of the House of Romanov

The House is informal called as: House of Holstein -Gottorp-Romanov
I noticed in parentheses the begin and the end of a reign of a Tsar.

Michael I (1613-1645)

Full name: Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov

Born: 12/07/1596

In 1598, the last Tsar of the Rurik dynasty died. 
A Time of Troubles began. However on February 21st. 1613,
Michael I of Russia was elected by the national assembly. 

In fact Michael I was through his aunt Anastasia Romanovna
a nephew from Feodor I, the last Rurik Tsar. 

On July,22 1613, his coronation took place in Moscow, Russia. 

He married twice:

1/     Princess Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova 
(who died 4 months after marriage) in 1624

2/     Eudoxia Streshneva in 1626
They had 10 children


1/ Tsarevna Irena

She was engaged with Prince Valdemar Christian of Denmark. 
In 1644 he came to Russia for the wedding but he refused to take over the 
Orthodox Faith. The Prince returned to Denmark without a bride. 
Tsarevna Irena never married.

2/ Tsarevna Pelageya

Died in childhood

3/ Alexis I of Russia

4/ Tsarevna Anna

She never married and entered the Convent of Ascension in Moscow 
as sister Anphisa

5/ Tsarevna Marfa

Died in childhood

6/ Tsarevich Ivan

7/  Tsarevna Sophia

Died in childhood

8/  Tsarevna Tatiana

She was the godmother of Tsarevna Marta Alexeyevna, 

Tsarevna Maria Ivanovna Tsarevna Feodosia Ivanovna and 
Tsarevich Alexis Petrovich.

9/ Tsarevna Eudoxia

10/ Tsarevich Vasili


Michael I died on 12/07/1645.
He is buried in  the Archangel Cathedral in Moscow.

Red square in Moscow - Painting - Source: Wikipedia

Alexis I of Russia  (1645-1676)

Full name: Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov
Born: 1629
He was 16 when he accepted the throne after his fathers death in 1645.

He married twice:

1/    Maria Myloslavskaya

Their Children:

1/ Tsarevich Dmitri
died young and is buried in the Cathedral of the Archangel in Moscow

2/ Tsarevna Yevdokia

3/ Tsarevna Marfa

4/ Tsarevich Alexei

5/ Tsarevna Anna

6/ Tsarevna Sofia

7/ Tsarevna Ekaterina

8/ Tsarevna Maria

9/ Fyodor III

10/ Tsarevna Feodosia

11/ Tsarevich Simeon

12/ Ivan V

13/ Tsarevna Yevdokia

2/     Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina

They had 3 children

1 Peter I (1672 - 1725)

2/ Tsarevna Natalya Alexeevna (1673 - 1716)

3/ Tsarevna Fyodora Alexeevna (1674 - 1677)

He died in 1676. In that year, Russia had a surface of almost 8.100.000 km2.

Feodor III (1676-1682)

Full name: Feodor Theodore Alekseyevich Romanov

File:Tsar Fydor III -cropped.JPG

Tsar of Russia between 1676 - 1682
He married twice

1/     Agafya Grushetskaya
Agafy Grshetskaya was the first tsarina who was for the beard-shaving 
and the adoption of Western clothes at the Russian court. 

In 1681, she gave birth to a son: Tsarevich Ilya Fyodorovich
After a few days mother and child died. 
Tsar Feodor was deep in mourning after their death.

2/     Marfa Matveievna
He died four months after his second marriage

Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia (1682-1689)

Regent from the Russian Tsardom (1682 - 1689) during the minority of her 
brothers Peter and Ivan. She died in a convent.

Ivan V of Russia (1682-1696)

Full name: Ivan Alekseyevich Romanov

Ivan V of Russia co-reingned with his younger brother Peter between 

1682 and 1696. But this reign was only on paper due to his poor health. 
He suffered some mental and physical diseases.
He married Praskovia Saltykovna


1/ Tsarevna Maria Ivanovna 
( 1689 - 1692)

2/ Tsarevna Feodosia Ivanovna 
(1690 - 1691)

3/ Tsarevna Ekaterina (Catherine) Ivanovna 
(1691 - 1733)

Catherina would have been Tsarina from Russia
(she was older than her sister Anna),
but she married Karl Leopold, Duke of Mecklenburg.

4 Tsarevna Anna Ivanovna (1693 - 1740)

File:Louis Caravaque, Portrait of Empress Anna Ioannovna (1730).jpg
Anna became a Tsarina of Russia.

5/ Tsarevna Praskovia Ivanovna (1694 - 1731)

Peter I of Russia 
"The Great" (1682-1725)

This Russian Tsar traveled to Europe as head of the Great Diplomatic
Mission. Full name: Peter Alekseyevich Romanov

File:Peter der-Grosse 1838.jpg

Tsar of Russia between 1682 - 1725. Peter wanted to reform Russia.
He was heavily influenced by his advisers from Western Europe. 
He also dreamed to make from Russia a maritime power. 

Peter the Great married twice

1/     Eudoxia Lopukhina


1/ Alexei Petrovich (1690 - 1718)

He was born in Moscow in 1690.
He married to Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg

2/ Alexander Petrovich ( 1691 - 1692)

3/ Paul Petrovich ( 1693)

2/ Catherine I

Full Latvian name: Marta Elena Skavronska
Full Rusian name: Marfa Samuilovna Skavronskaya 

File:Catherine I of Russia by Nattier.jpg


1/ Pyotr Petrovich (1704 - 1707)

2/ Pavel Petrocvich (1705 - 1708)

3/ Chatherine Petrovna (1706 - 1708)

4/ Anna Petrovna (1708 - 1728)

She married Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp

File:Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp.JPG

5/ Elizabeth Petrovna (1709 - 1762)
She married Alexei Grigorievich, Count Razumovsky, they had no issue.
However she became a Tsarina.

6/Maria Petrovna (1713 - 1715)

7/Margarita Petrovna (1714-1715)

8/ Pyotr Petrovich (1715 - 1719)

9/ Pavel Petrovich (1717 - 1717)

10/ Natalia Petrovna (1718-1725)

11/ Pyotr Petrovich (1723 - 1723)

12/ Pavel Petrovich (1724-1724)

Catherine I of Russia

Peter II of Russia


Full name: Pyotr Alekseyevich Romanov
He was the son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich and a grandson of Peter I 
and his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina.

portrait in the Hermitage

Source picture: Wikipedia

Father: Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich
Mother: Princess Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Anna of Russia 

Full name: Anna Ivanovna romanova

She married Frederick William, duke of Courland

File:Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland.PNG
They had no children.

Ivan VI of Russia 

Elizabeth of Russia

File:Carle Vanloo, Portrait de l’impératrice Élisabeth Petrovna (1760).jpg
Full name: Elizabeth Petrovna Romanova

Father: Peter II of Russia

Mother: Catherina I of Russia

She married Alexey Razumovsky

Peter III of Russia

File:Coronation portrait of Peter III of Russia -1761.JPG

Born: 1728
Died: 1762

Father: Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Mother: Anna Petrovna, a daughter of Tsar Peter I of Russia

After the death of Empress Elizabeth in 1762 he became the
new ruler of Russia.

As the emperor, Peter III gave up the Russian conquest in
Prussia. He did even more ... He offered 12.000 troops to 
make an alliance with Frederick II of Prussia. Instead he
wanted a war with Denmark. 

Peter III did a lot of things during his 186 days' reign. He passed
220 new laws! He even proclaimed religious freedom. 

The Tsar also fought against the corruption in the government
and he wanted to abolish the secret police!

Peter III forgot one thing: his coronation in Moscow. Instead
he went on a short holiday and left his wife alone in 
St. Petersburg .... 

Source pictures: Wikipedia