Monte-Carlo Fashion Week

In Monte-Carlo, Monaco, the Monte-Carlo Fashion week takes place from 14
till 18 May 2021. It is a festival of fashion and style. Designers from all over
the world show their designs for the following seasons. This event is organized
by the Fashion Council of Monaco together with the government. 

Monte Carlo Monaco - own picture taken in 2013

All the prominent people in the fashion industry as well as stylish icons, including
the royals attend the Fashion Week.

More about the Mont-Carlo Fashion Week
on this link and on this link as well. 


In 2013 the Monte-Carlo Fashion Week was created by Frederica Nardoni Spinetti,
the president and founder of the Chambre Monégasque de la Mode. More about the
Chambre Monégasque de la Mode on this link


The Monte-Carlo Fashion Week is Under the High Patronage of 
H.S.H. Princess Charlene of Monaco. 

own pictures taken in 2013

The Roman Series: Who was Vespasian?

Vespasian was born on 17 November 9 AD at Falacrine, a village at the north-east
of Rome. 

Colosseum in Rome own picture taken in 2017


Vespasian's paternal grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, became a centurion and he
fought at Pharsalus for Pompey in 48 BC. He also became a debt collector. 

Titus Flavius Sabinus, Vespasian's father, worked as a customs official in the
province of Asiia and he became a moneylender on a small scale. He married
Sabinus. They had three children. The elder boy was Titus Flavius Sabinus. 
The younger boy was Vespasian. He seemed far less likely to be successful than
his elder brother. He married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of Flavius Liberalis
from Ferentium and formerly the mistress of a roman equestrian. They had two
sons. Titus Flavius Vespasianus and Titus Flavius Domitianus and a daughter
Domitilla. Both his daughter and his wife died before he became emperor. 

His mistress Antonia Caenis became his wife in all but formal status. 
She was a confidential secretary to Antonia Minor, and a part of the circle of
courtiers and servants around the Emperor. 

Antonia Minor was a relative of Roman Emperors:

- Emperor Augustus (more on this link);
- Emperor Tiberius (more on this link);
- Emperor Caligula (more on this link);
- Emperor Claudius (more on this link) and
of Emperor Nero (more on this link) as well. 

source picture: Wikipedia

Career - The Way to the power

Upon the accession of Claudius as Emperor in 41, Vespasian was appointed legate of
Legio II Augusta, stationed in Germania. 

In 43, Vespasian and the II Augusta participated in the Roman invasion of Britain! He
distinguished himself under the overall command of Aulus Plautius. He participated
in the battles on the rivers Meway and Thames and he was sent to reduce the
south west through the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Sommerset,
Devon and Cornwall. He also invaded Vectis (now the Isle of Wight). These
successes earned him triumphal regalia on his return to Rome. 

In 51 he earned a consulship but he had a rift with Agrippina, Claudius' wife, who
was the most powerful and influential figure in her husband's reign. Vespasian retired
from public life but he was sent as governor to Africa Province in 63. 

Vespasian used his time in North Africa making friends instead of money. Returning
from Africa, Vespasian toured Greece in Nero's retinue. 

In 66AD Vespasian was appointed to suppress the Jewish revolt underway in Judea.
During this time he became the patron of Flavius Josephus, a Jewish resistance leader
captured at the Siege of Yodfat, who would later write his people's history in Greek. 

After the death of Nero in 68, Rome saw a succession of short-lived emperors and a 
year of civil war. Galba was murdered by supporters of Otho, who was defeated by
Vitellius. Otho's supporters looking for another candidate to support settled on 

Meanwhile Vespasian was in Egypt securing its grain supply, his troops entered Italy
from the northeast under the leadership of Marcus Antonius Primus. They defeated
Vitellius' army. 

In Rome a mob broke out. The Capitol was destroyed and Vespasian's brother Sabinus
was killed. 

On 1 July 69 AD, Tiberius Julius Alexander, who had been governor since Nero's reign
proclaimed Vespasian Emperor at Alexandria. 

On 21 December 69, Vespasian was declared Emperor by the Senate of Rome. 
Vespasian himself entered Rome in mid-70. 

source picture: Wikipedia


Vespasian renewed old taxes and instituted new ones, increasing the tribute of the
Provinces and kept a watchful eye upon the treasury officials. 

Vespasian helped rebuild Rome after the civil war. He added the temple of Peace
and the temple to the Deified Claudius. In 75 he erected a colossal statue of
Apollo. He also started the building of the Colosseum, which still exists in Rome. 

Colosseum in Rome - own picture taken in 2017


In 79 Vespasian had a slight illness and he left Rome for Aquae Cutilae. However
his illness worsened and he developed severe diarrhea. He died on 23 June 79.

He was succeeded by his sons Titus and then Domitian. 


For us the Colosseum of Rome is the most important legacy that
Emperor Vespasian left. 

Although there are others such as the Vespasian Titus Tunnel in Turkey.

To read more about Vespasian

source picture: Book cover