Today in History - May 29th.1847 - Emmanuel de Grouchy

Emmanuel de Grouchy was born on October 23rd. 1766 in Paris. His parents were
François-Jacques de Grouchy, 1st Marquis de Grouchy and Gilberte Fréteau de Pény.

Grouchy married twice

1/ Cécile le Doulcet de Pontécoulant (1767-1827) they would have 4 children
2/ Fanny Hua (1802-1889) they would have one daughter.

Despite his aristocratic birth, Grouchy always was a convinced supporter of the
principles of the Revolution.

Source picture: Wikipedia


1779: Emmanuel de Grouchy entered the French artillery.
1782: he was transferred to the cavalry.
1786: he entered the Gardes du Corps.
1792: Grouchy became colonel of the Régiment de Condé-Dragons &
Maréchal du camp.
In that function he was sent to serve on the south-eastern frontier. 

1793: Grouchy distinguished himself in La Vendée and he was promoted as
Général de division.

1799: he distinguished himself as a divisional commander in the
campaign against the Austrians and the Russians. After the defeat of Novi,
Grouchy was wounded and taken prisoner, but he was released
and Grouchy returned to France.

From 1801: Grouchy was employed by Napoleon Bonaparte himself
and he served in many military and political positions of importance.

Grouchy took part in the battles of inter alia:

* 1805: Austria
* 1806: Prussia
* 1807: Poland
* 1808: Spain

1812: Grouchy was made commander of the III Cavalry Corps.
He led this corps to Smolensk and Borodino. During the retreat of Moscow
Napoleon appointed him to command the escort squadron.

1814: Grouchy was seriously wounded at Craonne.

1815: Grouchy joined Napoleon on his return from Elba, therefore he was
made Marshal and peer of France.

Source picture: Wikipedia

At the Campaign of Waterloo Grouchy commanded the reserve cavalry of the
army and after Ligny he was appointed to command the right wing to put
pressure on the Prussians.

Napoleon sent Grouchy after the retreating Prussian army. This part was
under the command of General Johann von Thielmann, but on June 17th. 
1815 Grouchy was unable to close with the Prussians. 

He won a smart victory on the III Prussian Corps at the Battle of Wavre on
June 18-19th. 1815 but then it was too late and at that time the Battle was
over and Napoleon lost Waterloo.

1815: Grouchy returned to Paris where he resigned his command into the
hands of Marshal Louis Nicolas Davout.

He survived Waterloo, however the rest of his life was spent in defending
himself. First Grouchy exiled to America till 1821. By his return to France
he was reinstated as general but not as marshal nor as peer of France.

In 1830 King Louis Philippe gave him back the Marshal's baton and restored
him to the Chamber of Peers.

Grouchy died at Saint-Étienne on May 29th. 1847.

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