History - OnThisDay - June 10th. 1688 - James Francis Edward Stuart

June 10th. 1688 marks the birth of James Francis Edward Stuart. This event took
place at the St. James's Palace in London.

James and his mother Mary of Modena


Family

James Francis Edward Stuart was the son of King James II of England and Ireland
and Scotland (although there he reigned as King James VII) and Mary of Modena.

Youth

His mother, Mary of Modena, took James Francis Edward Stuart on
December 9th. 1688 to France.

There he was brought up at the Royal Castle in Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

On the throne or not?

In 1701 King James died and James Francis Edward Stuart was recognized by
King Louis XIV of France and the Pope as the rightful heir to the
English and Scottish thrones. They refused to recognize William III of England,
Mary II and even Anne as rightful heirs and the struggle started.

In 1713 Queen Anne became ill, in 1714 she recovered. However she had no
long time to live.

Diplomats started to convince James Francis Edward Stuart to become a Protestant.
James refused this. He said: " I have chosen my own course, therefore it is for others
to change their sentiment."

In August 1714, James's cousin, George of Hanover, a German speaking Protestant
became King of the Kingdom of Great Britain. He reigned as George I.

On December 22nd. 1715 James Francis Edward Stuart reached Scotland. There
he wanted to claim the Throne. James landed in Peterhead and he fell ill.
His coup was unsuccessful end finally he had to return to France where he was no
longer welcome because his patron, King Louis XIV of France died and the
French government found him a political embarrassment.

Finally Pope Clement XI offered James Francis Edward Stuart the Palazzo Muti
in Rome as his residence. He accepted and James organized a Jacobite Court in
Rome.



Love and Marriage

On September 3rd. 1719, James married Maria Clementina Sobieska. She was
a granddaughter of King John III Sobieska of Poland. They would have two
sons: Charles and Henry.

Death

On January 1st. 1766, James Francis Edward Stuart died at the Palazzo Muti
in Rome. He was buried in the crypt of the St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.




Source pictures: Wikipedia
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